One hundred years ago, Menominee, Michigan, located far from the world's financial centers, as well as today, however, is located directly in the middle of one of the hottest business boom of the early twentieth century – sugar. Small community who dared to land mark in the global commerce takes later point of land which plunges into Lake Michigan at the point, which is in close proximity to Wisconsin, that cartography curled finger at the decisive moment of a finger. in Wisconsin instead of Michigan.
On the east by the Green Bay Packers, arm of Lake Michigan and the south-west – the river Menominee. In 1903, many investors in the beet sugar industry had the wood and is therefore considered that the very river that was once delivered to the sawmill logs could also serve the needs of beet sugar factory, which uses more about & # 39; water volumes. Combustion beet factory, washing them and removing them from sugar. Sugar factory can easily put three million gallons of water for the use of every twenty-four hours. Barges may export sugar beets from the fields of the farm, and the trucks can transport goods to market. The presence of Menominee river has convinced investors that the Menominee could compete with the sugar producer in the country, despite the negative comments naysayerav, who said Menominee was too far to the north in order to successfully grow sugar beets.
In nasayerav was the point. Michigan, Michigan, unlikely place to build beet sugar factory. The growing season is at the western end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula at approximately forty days shorter than in beet growing regions in the state of Lower Peninsula. Short season may prevent the maturation of beet, which further reduce the sugar content of the beet immature, ill-prepared to stress the crushing process. Severe frosts in early spring not from the & # 39 are uncommon and almost always fatal for the young beet harvest. Frosts can also come in the early fall, which may make it impossible to harvest. The farmer lost his entire crop, or at the beginning of the growing season or at harvest time after he invested heavily in the reduction of sugar beet harvest. Investors, however, in Menominee, as in many cities of Michigan, as a rule, reduced income from farmers before building a factory, and is often attributed to an exaggerated admiration for several manufacturers as introducing a wider agricultural community. Quite often, as in the case Menominee &, as it turned out, a handful did not represent the whole.
Official recognition by the US Department of Agriculture in 1898, the importance of the sugar beet industry has caused the construction of plants of sugar beet for the whole country. A year earlier, the country boasts only ten plants of sugar beet, four of which were in California, one in Utah, two in Nebraska and three in New York. Construction of seven plants of sugar beet in 1898 for the first time in the spotlight was the rapid excitation, unlike dot boom that flourished nearly a hundred years. The idea that sugar produced from sugar beet, can compete with sugar, produced from sugarcane, has developed into a full-fledged boom until 1900, when the nationwide number of plants of sugar beet was thirty-two in eleven states.
Nowhere was hotter than in Michigan, where nine plants followed the successful launch of the factory in Eseksvile, Michigan, a suburb of Bay City. Explosion cyclonic enthusiasm caused a furious fight, when investors, builders, bankers and farmers about the & # 39; combined energy and skills to revive the eight plants in one year! They were in Holland, Kalamazoo, Rochester, Benton Harbor, Alma, West Bay City, Caro and the second factory in Eseksvile. Despite the lack of factories, designers and engineers in their operation over the next six years on the outskirts of Michigan towns grew fourteen additional factories, one of which is & # 39; appeared in Menominee in 1903.
The Menominee group of investors who have not decided the natural disadvantages and deceived encouragement from influential investors and experienced experts, undertook a plan to support the economic viability of the city after the rapid death of the timber industry, which had previously provided the foundations Menominee economy. The plan included the design of one of the largest and most modern factories of sugar beet, which is a & # 39 appeared in the United States so far.
As soon as the early 20th century, the era of lumber, railroad tracks, which came into its own because of the wood, looking for new sources of revenue. Chief among them was the railway to Detroit and Makintsyne, land agent Charles M. Garrison collect and distribute information about the potential of the sugar beet industry. While Garnisan spread the word among the financiers of Detroit of the future profits of sugar beet, the communities that were affected by the reduction of lumber, treated area resources for ways to add wealth. They had something to work with. The state was to cross railway lines and rivers, and some remained at the expense of funds from the lumber era. If Garrysan leading the way, investors have recovered. Society who want to find a quick replacement for timber, hastened to attend the meetings, which were held Garnisanam, and most still lead their cities in the folds. All that it was necessary to convince farmers to grow beets. It is here joined the Michigan Agricultural College (now the Michigan State University).
The farmers of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan Agricultural College are encouraged to produce sugar beet test sites received an even bigger shot in the arm the visit of the Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson in 1902. The climate was not put to the decision of profitable crops. Wilson worked for three presidential offices – McKinley, Roosevelt and Taft, who had served longer (1897-1913), than any other official of the Cabinet. He called modern farming techniques, including transport and education, if they apply to agriculture. His word carried great weight. When he spoke of the sugar beet, some farmers listened, and when his agency was avoided that the cold northern temperatures do not hinder the development of industry in their neighborhood, investors, farmers and manufacturers lined up to start work in Menominee.
Optimism rose to new heights when the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced the favorable results of the test plot of sugar beet. News of sugar beet by 15 December 1903 reported the results of tests of beet delivered about 140 farmers. The audit showed that the sugar is from 15.6 to 19.9%, which means the monetary value for farmers per hectare from 5.70 to 7.13 dollars per ton (inflation is 135- $ 169 with the current period). Under such target prices, no yield in the history of mankind has not created a potential for the creation of such a high yield with so few hectares.
On the Lower Peninsula farmer with a higher average power, posted fifteen hectares of sugar beet, could earn more than 800 dollars, and if he had something & # 39; I have provided the bulk of the labor force, the net profit would exceed the concern for the needs of the family & # 39; and . for the year, including food, was less than 800 dollars. After adding the income from crop rotation and income from milk, eggs and poultry standard of living of the family farms moved from survival level to the subsistence level. compared with those who held senior positions in the industry. USDA data support the view that the beets in the Upper Peninsula to exceed two per cent on average for all the other 18 plants of sugar beet in the Lower Peninsula.
If the tests were reliable indicators, Menominee region beets cost up to $ 10 more per acre than beet lower peninsula, providing a profit of nearly $ 1,000 a year just from sugar beet.
While the enthusiasm was on the rise, for laying an agreement was needed something more. To unuryts assured potential investors that technical expertise is at hand, Benjamin Butel, who won fame as the captain of the tug and the captain of industry, came to Menominee from his state headquarters Michigan, Michigan, for the sole purpose of attracting interested investors. the county Bay, where you could see well-groomed beet fields and efficient factories that produce white crystal sugar. Eleven potential investors accompanied Boutell in Bay City, where there were compelling evidence. In this city of four sugar beet plant were built, more than any other city in the United States. Bay City nearly took the economic activity due to the presence of sugar factories. Mansions living former lumber, which turned into sugar barons, littered the prestigious city center Avenue.
Boutell announced that it will be one of the investors, provided that other investors do not object to the plant designed and installed by Joseph Kilby, who, Boutell said, was an excellent designer of beet sugar factories in the United States. Many others agreed with the assessment Boutell; Kilby built nine of the possible twenty-four plants built in Michigan. Local investors are lined up Boutell, to organize tsukarnuyu company "Menominee River". It highlights a dozen major supporters, each of whom signed up for the amount of more than 25 000 dollars, which is on the company's shares Menominee River Sugar Company.
Topping the list of local shareholders Samuel M. Stephenson, a former producer of lumber and a native of New Brunswick, Canada, which has created a house for himself, his wife Jenny and their four daughters and one son in Menominee. Then he was seventy-one years, but it was not set up to retirement. After a successful car & # 39; sphere in lumber and banking, he served three consecutive terms in Congress (11th District of Michigan 1889-93 and the 12th District 1893-97). He invested $ 100 000 (by modern standards, $ 2 million) in a sugar factory, fascinated not only favorable test results and the enthusiasm of its neighbors, but also the interest that showed American corporation sugar rafinalogii widely known popular her then sobriquet, The Sugar Trust. A few years later Sugar Trust came into disfavor as a result of accusations of unfair business practices, but in 1903 he had confidence in the general public and investors, as well as control the production and sale of 98% of sugar consumed in the US States. The leaders of the trusts, Arthur and Charles R. Donaire Heike, invested $ 300 thousand to buy a 36% stake in the Menominee River Sugar Company.
All members of the board of directors and a list of officers, except for residents of Bay City Benjamin Butelya, Menominee listed as their home account. Menominee residents accounted for 74% of the shareholders. Together they controlled 53% shares. Besides Stevenson, other large shareholders, who also took office as officers or directors were William O. Carpenter, who invested $ 55,000 and held the sugar company in many ways, as the president and vice president. Gustav A. Blesh invested 15,000 dollars and served as treasurer. John Hennes, the owner of the brewery, invested $ 25 000, and Acting Director. Spy in August was the second largest investor after Stevenson and the Sugar Trust. He also served as director.
Spies give a perfect example of the hardy pioneer spirit that prevailed in Menominee. He was a native of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, where the fertile soil and the mild climate allows to produce grain and wine. He participated in the establishment of the National Bank of Stevenson, in partnership with the future US Congressman Samuel M. Stephenson and his brother Samuel, a future US Senator Isaac Stevenson. In addition, he had company "Spy Timber" and several large tracts of forest; he was an investor in the First National Bank of Menominee, paper company Marinette and Menominee and president of Menominee Light, Railroad and Power Company. If the company is to develop sugar began to act, he went ahead with the 75,000 dollars ($ 1.5 million in current dollars).
Support Menominee wealthy class, which is also shared by the difference in making good business decisions and increase according to their own merits, not by inheritance, was so great that there was no need to raise funds from the public. With the signed shares at $ 35,000 equity firm Menominee River Sugar was in the enviable position of having sufficient capital for their businesses. Not only does it have sufficient capital, but also enjoyed the added benefit of the experience of Benjamin Butelya and representatives of the Sugar Trust. Menominee would not want technical or business expertise.
Gustav Blesh as August Spy, owes its success to the hereditary qualities of hard work, honesty and respect of their peers. He became the first treasurer of the sugar companies. He was born in Green Bay, Wisconsin in 1859, the son of Francis Blesha, a native of Germany, and Antoinette Schneider, a native of Belgium. Gustav became a young man from the office of the National Bank of Kellogg Green Bay, which was up to twenty years. he moved in five years in Menominee, to help create the first national bank Menominee, where he became a cashier before becoming president of the bank. He became president of the company Menominee Brick, vice president of Menominee-Marinette Light & Traction Company and treasurer of the ground campaign of the peninsula.
In January 1903, the newly elected Board of Directors approved the construction plant for the construction of factories and building Kilby at $ 800,000 (nearly $ 19 million in the current era), which allowed to cut 1,000 tons of beets per day. With 48 sugar beet factories that operated in the United States in 1903, only two were larger than new factory Menominee, one in Salinas, California, and the second in Fort Collins, Colorado.
The average sugar factory in Michigan in 1903, could cut six hundred tons of beets per twenty-four hours. Four thousand acres of beets could easily have provided the factory season. If investors surveyed farmers first, they would be advised to build a smaller plant and could have persuaded him not to build. Farmers were getting beets about 1500 hectares, 9000 hectares is not enough to finance investment.
The first plant for Menominee plant (referred to as "the company" in the sugar industry) quickly ended, receiving only 14,263 tons, enough to make fourteen days for the factory, which investors had planned to work at least. one hundred days. However, farmers have filed a beet, containing the largest amount of sugar, which was reported in any of the company during the first campaign, to 15.04 percent – about 20 percent, than the national average, and is sufficient to provide a small income from the scanty supply of sugar beet. Like almost all the factories, the records that have informed us of the profits when it was earned during the first campaign, did not survive the passage of time. However, it would be wise to calculate based on known costs for the supply of coal, coke, limestone and labor costs, earnings of 36,000 dollars has been made, especially in the management style that closely paid attention to costs, especially in light of the very a high percentage of sugar beet.
The second campaign was better with a sufficient amount of beet for a month, it is still insufficient supply, necessary to make a profit, it is sufficient to justify the investment. By 1911, local supply reached a level that would allow a steady income, but was insufficient to promote the expansion, a condition that lasted until 1926, when apathy manufacturers decreased to a level that requires closing the factory until 1933, when she again It opened for the final run of twenty years, during which the factory is behind the industry in technology and growth. From year to year, due to an insufficient number of beets, which are grown in Wisconsin, malazadeynichanaya factory finished his company a few weeks earlier than was necessary for a healthy profit, then that could be reinvested in the factory. Investors participating learned, like many other investors of a sugar factory, the mantra "build it and they will come" fell on deaf ears among farmers, who often showed a greater understanding of sugar economy than investors.
Time does not bring any harm nor good Menominee factory, because it was not able to expand and modernize. It settled into graceful aging process. Income, which looks forward to gradually accumulates due to the unfortunate management style and the dedicated frame farmers.
George W. McCormick, the first manager of the company, has opened a careful style of management, which went a long way toward keeping the company profitable, in spite of an annual shortfall of beet deliveries. He led the company during the first thirty-two years, beginning with the twenty-four years. He met with Benjamin Butelem in Bay City, when he moved there to find work supervisor County Insurance Company travelers. Бутэль думаў, што малады чалавек належыць да хутка развіваецца цукровай прамысловасці, і заклікаў яго дапамагчы ў стварэнні цукровага завода ў Валаслабургу, Антарыё. Пасля паспяховага выканання задання Бутель парэкамендаваў яго для працы кіраўніка ў Menominee.
Menominee было самым складаным месцам у ЗША для перапрацоўкі цукровых буракоў. Нізкія тэмпературы прынялі вялікі ўплыў на працоўных, машын і буракоў, якія звычайна праходзілі праз машыны для нарэзкі, як валуны, пашкоджваючы абсталяванне, якое рабавала фабрыку стройных рэсурсаў. Было цяжка знайсці запасныя часткі з-за адлегласці, якая аддзяляла Menominee ад пастаўшчыкоў і ад цукровых заводаў Ніжняга паўвострава, дзе кіраўнікам фабрыкі было звычайна здаваць запасныя часткі адзін аднаму.
Уважлівая ўвага кампаніі да кантролю за выдаткамі кампаніі акупілася ў 1924 г., калі цукровыя заводы, размешчаныя ў Грын-Бэй і Вадаспад Menominee, Вісконсін, выйшлі на рынак. Цукровая кампанія Menominee River набыла абодва, а потым уклала значныя сумы ў аднаўленне фабрыкі Menominee Falls, якая была закрыта на тры гады непасрэдна перад продажам.
У адрамантаваным заводзе Menominee Falls у спалучэнні з Green Bay і Menominee заводы штата Мічыган стварылі больш магутнасці, чым неабходна для наяўнай плошчы. Адзін з заводаў давялося б закрыць. Menominee выйграў пятлю пасля таго, як бухгалтары падлічылі транспартныя выдаткі на вывазку буракоў на кожную фабрыку. Фабрыка Menominee заставалася закрытай да 1933 г., калі фермеры штата Мічыган адмовіліся і пагадзіліся вярнуцца да цукровых буракоў, рашэнне, якое прыйшло занадта позна, каб выратаваць уладальнікаў цукровай кампаніі, якія страцілі кампанію з-за дэфолтаў тры аблігацыі. гадамі раней.
Збоі ў Еўропе, якія пачаліся ў пачатку 1930-х гадоў, прынеслі новую назву палёў бурачнага цукру і карпаратыўным офісам Мічыгана – Флегенхаймер. Альберт Флегенгаймер быў сынам Самуэля Флегенгаймера, які іміграваў у ЗША альбо ў 1864, альбо ў 1866 годзе, і стаў натуралізаваным грамадзянінам у 1873 годзе. Аднак у наступным годзе ён вярнуўся ў Нямеччыну і пасяліўся ў Вюртембергу. Ён пражыў там сваё жыццё, памёршы ў 1929 годзе ва ўзросце 81 гадоў. Аднак яго кароткае знаходжанне ў ЗША і статус яго грамадзянства ў ЗША аднойчы выратуюць яго нашчадкаў з нямецкіх лагераў смерці.
У лютым 1939 года Альберт Флегенхаймер адвёз сваю сям'ю ў бяспеку Канады, а потым у ЗША, заявіўшы аб грамадзянстве як сын натуралізаванага грамадзяніна. Ён планаваў выхаваць сям'ю і прысвяціць свой час цукровай прамысловасці як у ЗША, так і ў Канадзе. Яго планы выканалі значны поспех, і да 1954 года ён кіраваў цукровым заводам у Menominee і заводам у Грын-Бэй, штат Вісконсін.
Нягледзячы на намаганні Альберта Флегенгаймера, адсутнасць цікавасці з боку фермераў трымала завод невялікім і састарэлым. Ён змагаўся з году ў год, пакуль, нарэшце, у 1955 годзе яго абсталяванне не вычарпана, будынкі ў старым рамонце, а фермеры, якія займаліся іншымі ўраджаямі, "Menominee River Sugar Company", пабудаваныя на надзеях і марах і дзейнічалі з сілай і настойлівасцю больш за паўстагоддзя, назаўсёды зачыніў свае дзверы.
GUTLEBEN, Dan, The Sugar Tramp-1954- Michigan, Надрукавана: Bay City Дубліраванне Co, Сан-Францыска, 1954
1962 г. ДРУГАЯ РАБОТА-РЭСУРСЫ ГРУЗЫ ДЗЯРЖАЎ, раздзел "Вядомыя лідэры, якія дапамагалі стварыць Menominee", падрыхтаваны Ірынай Свен, доктар Леў Дж. Алілунас, дырэктар.
Хенлі, Роберт Л., салодкі поспех. . Гісторыя Мічыгана: бурачная цукровая прамысловасць 1898 – 1974 гг., Мічыганскі гістарычны цэнтр, аддзел гісторыі, мастацтва і бібліятэк
РЭГУЛЯЦЫІ ІНФЛАЦЫІ: Дадзеныя да 1975 года ўяўляюць сабой статыстыку індэкса спажывецкіх цэн з гістарычнай статыстыкі ЗША (USGPO, 1975). Усе дадзеныя з таго часу паходзяць з штогадовых статыстычных тэзісаў Злучаных Штатаў. Запісана на http://www.westegg.com/inflation
Гадавыя справаздачы Мічыгана, Мічыганскі архіў, Лансінг, Мічыган
© 2009 Томас Махар
Томас Махар займаў пасаду выканаўчага віцэ-прэзідэнта кампаніі "Манітор цукру" ў перыяд з 1984 па 1999 год і ў 1993-1998 гг. Быў прэзідэнтам кампаніі "Галава харчовая перапрацоўка". Ён выйшаў на пенсію ў 1999 годзе і зараз прысвячае вольны час пісанню пра гісторыю цукровай прамысловасці. Ён з'яўляецца аўтарам кампаніі "Sweet Energy", "Гісторыя маніторынгу цукровай кампаніі" ў 2001 годзе.